An Essay

Ein Aufsatz




Early settlers and the present State of Goa



The present State of Goa evolved in the course of many centuries. It has been conjectured that the kunnbis were the earliest colonizers of the land of Goa. They came with their cattle which perhaps led the country to be called Goparashtra. Parts of the present territory were ruled by the Mauryas, Satvahanas, Bhojas, Chalukyas and Silaharas.


The Kadamba kings, whose seal was a lion with a curled tail, ruled Goa from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries A.D. Their original kingdom consisted of the area south of Tiswadi (Ilhas) with Chandrapuri, the present Chandor, as their capital. It was later on shifted to Govapuri, now Goa Velha or Vodlem Goem, on the north bank of the River Zuari in about 1052[4]. The Kadambas used Kannada, also called Canarese (the State Language of the present Karnataka), as their official language[5]. An influence of the Kannada language still exists in some Goan folk songs.[6] Some village names like Benaulim, Bambolim, Carambolim, Chicalim, Panelim, Talaulim, Navelim, Zambaulim have the Portuguese modification of the Kannada word halli as their suffix in the form of -alim, -olim, and -elim. Halli in Kannada means “village”.[7] 


In 1378[8] Goa, then named Konkanya Rajya, was included in the Vijayanagara Empire with Govapuri as its capital. In about 1403, a Goan, Mai Sinai Waglo was appointed as the Vijayanagara Governor of Goa.[9] They, like the Kadambas, encouraged Vedic worship and promoted international trade. The official language continued to be Kannada.[10] The Konkanya Rajya of Vijayanagara lasted about a hundred years, 1378-1469 (1472).


Mahmud Gawan, a Bahamni Muslim, captured Goa in 1472[11] and established his capital in Ela (Velha Goa, Old Goa).


The Adil Shah Dynasty of Bijapur ruled Goa for a short period, from 1488-1510, after the Bahamanis. Their palace in Old Goa stood in the present compound of St. Cajetan´s Church. They employed Turkish and Persian craftsmen and artisans. I suggest the hypothesis that the Persian-type dome of St. Cajetan´s Church, built in 1665, could be a replica of Gol Gumbaz of Bijapur, built in 1626-1656. The Turks and the Persians must also have had some influence on Konkani song and music. The quatrain with eight syllables in a line, as is common in the mando, is also known in the Kiswahili Utenzi, which may be of Arabic origin. Words of Arabic/Persian origin have found their way into Konkani, some of them being in daily use like bondir (Ribandar), caido, khobor, zabab. Arab resp. Persian rule is also partly the reason for the presence of women of these origins in Old Goa, whose beauty and charm found the favour of the Portuguese when they conquered that area.


Afonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515), supported by the local population[12], defeated Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur on November the 25th, 1510 and claimed Ilhas[13] for the Crown of Portugal. Bardez and Salcete followed in 1543[14]. The Portuguese further extended their rule to Bicholim, Cancona, Pernem, Ponda, Quepem, Sanguem and Satari between 1763-1788,[15] thus drawing the boundaries of the present State of Goa and laying its foundations.


Old Goa, also known as Goa Dourado (Golden Goa), had about 200.000 inhabitants in 1543 which made it the largest city in the Portuguese empire of that period. It, however, gradually lost its financial resources when the supremacy of the Portuguese in the Far East Trade was challenged by other European nations. In addition to that the two epidemic attacks in 1543 and 1672 forced the Portuguese to move their capital from Old Goa (Velha Goa) to Panaji. By a Royal decree dated 22nd March, 1934, Panaji was raised to a city with the denomination Nova Goa. As a result of political changes in Portugal the Jesuits were suppressed in 1759 and all other Catholic Religious Orders and Congregations in 1833-1835. Their convents and institutions were deserted. Old Goa became desolate.  


On May the 30th, 1987 the former Estado da India Portuguesa became a State within the Indian Union. Goa has an area of 3.701 km2, 443 villages  (ganv), 11 counties (talukas) and a population of about 1.300.000 (1991: 1.168.622) with a literacy of over 85% and about 97% of the children of ther native (zonkar) Goans attending school in the 1990s. The question of those children who are not attending school and are seen begging on the streets of the towns has to be discussed in the context of migrant labour and immigrants from other states.


Schools, Colleges and the University of Goa


Schools attached to churches were first established in Goa under the Viceroy Dom João de Castro in 1545 by an Order of King João III of Portugal[16], a de facto compulsory education. The children, both boys and girls,  were taught Portuguese, European music and Christian doctrine, with Konkani being the medium of instruction. The salaries of the teachers were paid by the village comunidades. The College of St. Paul in Old Goa, the University of Goa, was founded under a former name on April the 24th, 1541. It was handed over to the Jesuits in 1548[17] and from 1578 onwards it was entitled to issue degrees up to the Doctorate in theology, philosophy, language and literature. It had a curriculum of studies based on that of the University of Sorbonne in Paris.[18] This relationship with the Sorbonne was probably due to the Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier who arrived in Goa on May the 6th, 1542 and was a former student of that University. A regular study of medicine began in 1692 with Manuel Rodrigues de Souza as Dean of the Faculty. It was attached to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra, Portugal, in 1764,[19] The Conclusiones Philosophicae, a thesis defended by Franciscus Cabral of St. Paul´s (Jesuit) College in Old Goa, was printed in the same college in 1556[20]. It was the first book to be printed in India. The Gazeta de Goa, the official bulletin of Goa, first appeared on 22nd December, 1821.


The printing press Tip. Rangel in Bastorá was founded in 1886 and was able to print music (staff notation) in the European manner. The Historical Archives of Goa was founded in Old Goa by a Royal Decree on February the 25th, 1595[21], the Central Library of Goa in Panaji was established in 1827, the Escola Médica Cirúrgica de Nova Goa in 1842 and the Liceu Nacional de Nova Goa in 1854. The present University of Goa was founded on June the 30th, 1985. The Kala[22] Akademi in Panaji promotes art, song and dance.


Village Structures


Ganv is derived from the Sanskrit grama, stands for “aggregate” and may be interpreted asvillage”. Ganvkar is its freeholder, a descendant of the founder cultivators. Vangod stands for “clan”. Ganvkari is the village association. Those who are members of the commune are known as zonkar, zon being the share of the net-income of the ganvkari. Rights and privileges were inherited by the male descendants, women were excluded[23]. Mahajan[24] is a title used by members of a religious association in Goa consisting of founder members of temples and their descendants. The Portuguese renamed the mahajans as mazanias and the ganvkari as gauncarias or comunidades.  The customary laws of the existing agrarian communes were codified by the then Portuguese Official of the Treasury Afonso Mexia in the Foral dos usos e costumes dos Gauncares e Lavradores desta Ilha de Goa e outras annexas a Ela of 1526. The Foral dos foros e contribuções dealing with taxes in 1541, the Regiment of 1735, the Decree of 1836, the Code of Village Associations of January the 1st, 1908 and the Code of 1961[25] followed.


The mazanias are associations of a religious nature while the gauncarias are the agricultural and welfare associations of the ganvkars and embody the concept of joint possession.


Village affairs were managed by a group of people´s representatives, each of whom was called gavnkar or gramapurusha. The council of gavnkars was called ganvkari or ganvpon (in Portuguese gauncaria). Each councillor represented a vangod. The village was divided into vaddos (wards, in Portuguese bairros). The person who headed a council was honoured on feast days with a betel-leaf presented to him and dancers starting the festival dance at his door steps. His field was ploughed first and harvested first. The meetings of the council were held either in a hall (chauddi) or under a banyan[26] tree which is sacred in Goan traditional culture. Such age-old trees are still to be seen on the precincts of some Roman Catholic churches such as St. Bartholomeu´s Church in Chorão, Tiswadi (Ilhas), which was built in 1569 and rebuilt from 1641-1649. One may presume that a Hindu temple existed there prior to the building of that church. The tax collector was called potecar. The clerk, who was usually a Brahmin, was called kulkarni or, later on, escrivão in Portuguese. He drew up deeds (namoxims), kept all the records and accounts and did all the written work. The village records of the 15th and 16th centuries were kept in Kannada (Canerese), Konkani or Marathi[27]. All the employees, including the temple-dancers, were mostly compensated by lease of land.


The ghor-batt (land adjacent to a house) existed within the framework of the village organisations, the bhattkar[28] being the landowner on whose landed property the mundkar[29] lived. This feudal aspect which is contrary to the traditional joint ownership system must have been introduced by the Saraswat Brahmins[30] when they entered Goa probably in the eight to tenth century A.D. In exchange for the offer of residence, the mundkar and his whole family had to guard the bhatt and to serve its owner in agricultural as well as domestic matters. Since the mundkars, many of them were kunnbis, were denied a political forum against exploitation by the landlord and against the libidinous approaches of his sons towards the mundkar´s daughters, the Konkani poets and composers voiced their grievances in song, as for example Agô chedua, Fulu anv jardinintulem, Fulola fulancho mollo and Sanquale paddunc guelear. A Royal Decree for Goa dated  August the 25th, 1901 aimed at protecting the mundkar from the arbitary excesses of the bhattkar[31].


A resolution of the Portuguese Government in Goa dated the 5th July, 1649 declared the State to be the owner of all community lands and the village councils as tenants.[32]


The gavnkari were in fact co-operatives entrusted with the task of providing for the needs of their members, such as the opening and maintaining of public roads, setting up places of common use and wards for artisans. Destitute persons and beggars – if any – were a concern of the ganvkari. The recent phenomena of “street” children,  for example in Panaji, begging in public was then simply out of question. The gavnkari also maintained the chief Hindu temples which were places of worship and teaching.  These temples were also centres of culture where music and natok (dance drama) depicting scenes from the Indian sacred scriptures was taught and performed. At the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in Goa in 1510, Ilhas had about 116 such temples, Bardez 176 and Salcete 264.[33] These ganvkari permitted the Syro-Malabar Christians, who lived in India since about the third century, and also Buddhists, Jains and Muslims to freely practice their faith and even offered the same opportunity to the Roman Catholics from Portugal when they arrived in Goa in 1510[34].


Christian Missionaries


Afonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515) did not disturb the religious harmony that prevailed in Goa. The Portuguese Government in Goa, whose primary interest was to establish and maintain trade relations in Asia, promoted the services of Hindus and Muslims in the context of its own commercial interests.


Christian Europe, however, believed that it had attained the plenitude of universality. That probably accounts for the traumatism when it faced the ancient and living cultures and civilizations in Asia, which led to an attempt to impose European structures on the existing societies in Asia in all spheres of activity. The European superiority lay principally in the possession and use of firearms.


The Portuguese Government in Goa got under pressure of the Roman Catholic Church which had immense influence in the then sacral state.[35] The First (Roman Catholic) Provincial Council of Goa, held under the chairmanship of the then Archbishop of Goa, Gaspar de Leão Pereira in 1567, declared that Christians in Goa should not be permitted to use their former Indian names, thus initiating a process of alienation. These Christians had to adopt the family names of their Portuguese godparents at baptism. The same Council also decreed the demolition of “all idols, temples, trees and sites of Hindu worship”. Diogo Fernandes, the Captain of the Fort of Rachol, destroyed 280[36] Hindu temples in Salcete alone.[37] One of the few pimpoll-trees (ficus religiosa), the Hindu sacred tree par excellence, which escaped the attention of these destructive forces stands in the vicinity of the church in Benaulim (consecrated in 1596).[38]


This process of alienation through Christian missionary pressure forced the faithful Hindus, who did not want to abandon the “faith of their fathers”, to flee from Bardez, Ilhas and Salcete, to Ponda, Satari and other areas beyond the jurisdiction of the Portuguese. Centuries later Christian Goans living in the christianized districts looked across the River Zuari and composed their nostalgic deknnis. The pelthori (the other shore) in the deknnis is not just a geographical term but essentially a state of mind.


The Inquistion of Goa was established in 1560 and abolished in 1812. The Goa Tourism Office faced by a green meadow now stands on its former site in Old Goa. The Arch through which the innocent victims had to pass invoking the blessing of the Blessed Virgin Mary on their way to their execution – an apotheosis of irony - still stands near the Church of St. Cajetan opposite the Sé Cathedral. Except for a crucifix of Jesus with open eyes and an upright head which was kept in the chapel of the Adil Khan Palace (now the Secretariat) in Panaji and then transferred to the Chapel of Saint Sebastian in Fontainhas, Panaji in 1918[39] and the Inquisition Table in the Institute Menezes Bragança in Panaji (verbal information received) no trace of this Inquistion is now existing. After a long phase of anti-Hindu legislation[40] which started in 1567 (whose roots, however, go back to 1540), the Bando of August the 6th, 1763 gave instructions to respect the practices and customs of the people of Goa. The Carta Regia of 15th January 1774, interpreted by that of February the 16th, 1774, recommended that the Hindus should not be disturbed in the practice of their rights, in their individual liberty, and in the possession of their property.[41] 


Pre-Portuguese Educational System


The formal education which existed in Goa before 1510 had been reserved to males of the upper strata of the caste-oriented Goan society[42].  The institution for Primary Education known as patasala or parisha provided instructions in reading, writing and arithmetic in the local language. Higher Education was given in an institution known as agrahara, brahmapur, gurukula or matha. The medium of instruction was Sanskrit[43]. In addition to Vedic studies, other subjects such as astrology, Indian medicine, mathemetics, phonetics and grammar were taught. Girls, except the temple dancers (devadasi and kolvont), were excluded from formal education.


An agrahara is a community of learned Hindu Brahmins, a brahmapur is a settlement of learned Hindu Brahmins but not a corporate body, a matha is a Hindu monastery. All such institutions were financed by the former Hindu rulers in Goa, especially by the Kadambas. The Muslims in Goa had their own educational institutions as in other parts of the world. The maktaba cared for Primary Education and the madarasa for Higher Education. These institutions restricted themselves to teaching tafsir (exegesis of the Holy Koran), hadis (tradition) and sharia (Islamic law).


Social Structures


“Goa can be acclaimed as an example of communal harmony”[44] 


The Portuguese were not only navigators and traders. They also conceived the vision of a new society with an “expressão Portuguesa”, which for them meant the Portuguese language and culture, and Christianity as its essential features.


Goans are eclectic by nature. They accept a new way of life and assimilate it into their own traditions. The Goans became Christians, but remained Hindus by culture, they spoke Portuguese but sang in Konkani. The Portuguese presence in Goa gave the people an opportunity to be exposed to new ideas. Obviously on account of this, there has been a marked impact on at least one of the aspects of Goan society, the status of women since more than 400 years. Formal education at all levels for women, the right of inheritance, remarriage of widows, access to almost all jobs and offices, and freedom of movement in society, gives them a sence of security and self-respect. Goan women are not proud, but they have a pride.


“Goa is probably the only State in India which does not have any scheduled tribe.”[45] The Goans, in general, classified their society according to the existing Indian varna and jati (Caste)-System. At present, however, they restrict themselves to three groups: the Brahmins (Chitpavan, Daivadnya, Karhade and Saraswat), the Chadde (Kashtriya and Kayastha), and Sudras (Dhobi, Sutar, Bhandari, Pagui, Mahar, Chambar etc.). The fisher-folk who are mostly Catholic are called Kharvi. The three essential criteria for the choice of a partner in marriage were, therefore, amchi jati (our caste), amchi bhas (our language) and amchem dhormon (our religion). Hindus and Catholics accept monogamy as a norm and avoid divorce. The Goan Sunni-Muslims[46] speak Urdu and Konkani and follow their own traditions. They have, however, adapted themselves to local customs including monogamy. All marriages in Goa are registered under the Civil Code.


The Portuguese stratified society in Goa in their own pigmentocracy terms. The reinos were the aristocratic Portuguese officials who returned to Portugal after their term of service. The upper strata of the reinos was known as fidalgos and the lower as nobres. The casados were married Portuguese nationals. The offspring of the casados were known as castiços, if both the parents were of Portuguese origin, and mestiços, the Konkani word being sankirna jati[47], if one of the parents was of Indian origin. These Indians were mostly Muslim girls of Persian and Turkish origin[48]. Afonso Albuquerque had captured and killed a number of Muslims in March-May 1510. However, he had spared the lives of the good looking young wives and daughters of the slain Muslims, to marry them to the Portuguese nationals who were willing to settle down in Goa. This was repeated in November of the same year[49]. These Muslim women were all baptized before getting them married[50]. Mulatos were the offspring of Portuguese men and African girls, mainly from Mozambique, bought at the Praça de Leilão on the Rua Direita (still called so) which started at the Arch of the Viceroys (near the ferry to the Divar Island), passed the Sé Cathedral and ran for over a mile. The naturaes were the natives of Goa, subdivided in canarins (Christians) and gentios (Hindus and Muslims). The slaves stood socially at the lowest level.


The Marquês de Pombal, who had introduced liberal ideas into Portugal, promulgated the Act of 1761, whereby all citizens of Portuguese India or of other Overseas-Provinces in Asia, who were Christians and not suffering from  any legal disability, were to enjoy the same honours, privileges and prerogatives as enjoyed by those born in Portugal, without any discrimination whatsoever[51].




“The scenic beauty of Goa is arresting and matches with the Goan´s love for music, dance and religious tolerance.”[52]


The traditional Goan musical instruments are dholak, also called the mridanga, gumot, madlem, sarangi, tambura and veena. Dholak or mridanga  is a wooden cylinder covered at both ends with a goat skin. The gumott is an earthen-ware pot-like vessel made by Goan potters with openings on the two opposite sides, one large and the other small in diameter with the middle portion much bulging outwards. On the larger opening with the edge conveniently moulded for the fitting, a wet skin of a lizard (lacerda ocelata), known in Konkani as sap or ghar, is fully stretched to cover the whole surface of the opening. When accompanying a song or dance the gumott is usually placed on the left thigh, while the player sits comfortably on a chair.[53] The gumott is essential for a mando performance. A madlem is a cylindrical earthen vessel covered at both ends with the skin of a lizard. A sarangi is a string instrument similar to a European harp. A tambura is a stringed instrument like the veena but with only one string. The veena is a stringed instrument made of two gourds which are connected by a piece of wood. Strings of brass and steel are passed over it. There is a hole bored in one of the gourds.


The Portuguese brought the piano, the mandolin and the violin to Goa.




The Portuguese entered Goa on November the 25th, 1510 and left on the 19th of December 1961. The States of the Republic of India being linguistic units, Goa had to provide a linguistic identity. The Sahitya Akademi, the National Academy of Letters, declared on February the 26th, 1975, “As Konkani fulfils the criteria formulated by the Akademi for recognition of a language it is recognized as an independent literary language of India.”[54]


The origins of Konkani, the southernmost of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, are described by José Pereira as follows: “Into a non-Aryan country came the Sarasvat (Saraswat) Brahmins and the Tsa-ddi (Chadde) bearing with them a Northern Indian speech. In their trek southwards they took over some of the Nagari Prakrit of Western India and more of the Maharashtri of the Northern Deccan – ancient India´s song-language. By the eight century they were already in the Konkan. The amalgam of the Prakrits had, two centuries afterwards, given rise to Konkani.[55] Research and teaching of the Konkani language was started in St. Paul´s College in Old Goa in 1541 onwards, in the Jesuit Seminary in Maddel, Chorão[56], Ilhas in 1565, and in Rachol Seminary in 1576. Recent institutions which promote Konkani are the Konkani Bhasha Mandal (1939), the Konkani Sahitya Samiti (1944), Stephan Kendar and others. The Goa Konkani Akademi was established on March the 4th, 1986 [57].


The Roman script for Konkani was introduced by the Portuguese along with the types of the printing press installed in Goa in 1556, with a phonetic form of writing based on the Portuguese phonology of those times, with diacritical marks added. Since the early missionaries discouraged the converts from learning the Devanagari script in which the Hindu sacred scriptures were written, the Goan Roman Catholics adopted the Old Standard Konkani script known as Porni Praman for their liturgical texts and also for their printed media and for daily use.




The sari and the kapodd are the traditional garments of Goan women. During the era of the classical mando Goan women, however, preferred the torhop-baz. Some claim that ladies from Malacca, who were married to Portuguese men, introduced this garment into Goa.[58] This hypothesis could be possible, since a similar type of garment is still worn in South-East Asia. In the Philippines it is associated with Muslim women. Others say that it is a borrowing from Muslim Bijapur.[59] The word torhop is probably derived from the Kanerese, which was the official language of Goa during the Kadamba rule, tarhapu meaning an “apron”.[60] The torhop-baz consists of three items: the torhop or sarong like loin cloth, the baz or bodice, and the tuvalo, a shawl. The torhop has a horizontal border along the lower edge of the cloth, and a vertical one in the middle of the body, from the waist to the feet. There were prescribed colours for mourning and for festivities, for married women and for widows. The ceremonial torhop-baz worn during the mando dance was of velvet or silk, red, blue or green in colour, embroided with gold (rarely with silver) threads. A white or blue shawl was worn. The socks had to be white and the slippers ornamented. This was all graced with a fan, which enhanced the lady´s mood with a secret charm during the dance. The Portuguese word for torhop-baz is fota Quimão.


Men in Goa generally wear trousers, a shirt, and occasionally a coat and a tie. The traditional dhoti which men used to wear is hardly to be seen in public at present. Hindu women have remained faithful to the sari, while Christian women who presumed themselves to be westernised, showed this by wearing European type of dresses. The general trend among women in Goa since 1961 is fashion designed in India.




Closing address to visitors


Religious harmony among Christians, Hindus and Muslims, family ties and communal development are traditional values which are still treasured in Goa.


Since Goa has exchanged views with Europe since 1510, and Goans themselves go abroad and return home with new experiences, European visitors to Goa should feel at home during their stay there. The tourist-belt is far from being identical with authentic Goa, which is still a living identity in the villages.








[1] Portugiesisch

[2] „Goa, Du Schönes Land“ auf Konkani, die Sprache (State Language) Goas

[3] Konkani

[4] Rajagopalan, S. 1975: 4

[5] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 29

[6] Khedekar, Vinayak. Religion in Goan Folk Songs. A Paper read on 24.03.1985 at the Local History Seminar organized by the Xavier Centre of Historical Research, Porvorim, Goa

[7] Xavier, P.D. 1993 : 4

[8] Kamat, Pratima. 1999: 21

[9] Kamat, Pratima. 1999 : 21.

[10] Pereira, Jose/ Martins, Micael. 1984: 20

[11] Kamat, Pratima. 1999 : 22

[12] Barros de, Joseph. 1984: 29-38.

[13] At that time Goa consisted of Old Goa, Chorão, Divar, Vansim and Jua.

[14] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 121

[15] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 7

[16] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 192

[17]It once had over 3000 students from all over Asia but fell into ruins after the Jesuits were suppressed in Goa in 1759. Only the gateway which formed the entrance now stands in Old Goa on the main road leading to Ponda.

[18] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 181

[19] Menezes de, António. 1978: 103-104

[20]Barros de, Joseph. 1989: 9-10. Refer also to Priolkar, A.K. 1958. The Printing Press in India. Its Beginnings and early Development. Mumbai: Marathi Samshodana Mandala

[21] Menezes de, Antonio. 1978 : 46

[22] Kala means “art, culture”

[23] This was compensated by the dowry

[24] Mahajan means “an honourable person”

[25] Souza de, Carmo. “The Village Communities. A Historical and legal Perspective”, in: Borges, Charles J. 2000: 112 and Velinkar, Joseph. “Village Communities in Goa and their Evolution”, in Borges, Charles J. 2000: 126

[26] Botanical name: ficus bengalensis (Romano Abreu)

[27] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 178

[28] Bhatt means “land, fields” and –kar means “having, owner”

[29] Tentative etymology: munda means “money” and mundkar refers to the one who receives it.

[30] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed.). 1993: 185-189

[31] Kamat, Pratima. “Peasantry and the Colonial State in Goa 1946-1961”, in:  Borges, Charles J. 2000: 149

[32] Velinkar, Joseph. “Village Communities in Goa and their Evolution”, in: Borges, Charles J. 2000: 124-132

[33] Pereira, Rui Gomes. 1978 : 6

[34] Pereira, Rui Gomes. 1978 : 16

[35] Robinson, Rovena. “The Construction of Goan Interculturality. A historical Analysis of the Inquisitional Edict of 1736 as prohibiting (and permitting) syncretic Practices”, in: Borges, Charles J. 2000: 289-315

[36] About 264 were mentioned for 1510.

[37] Cruz da Fernandes, Caetano. 1997. “Evangelization of the St. John the Baptist´s Parish”, in: Fourth Centenary Souvenir. St. John the Baptist Church, Benaulim 1596-1996. p. 20-21

[38] Verbal information received from Father Caetano da Cruz Fernandes, Pastoral Centre, Old Goa in January 2000

[39] Menezes de, Antonio. 1978 : 39

[40] Priolkar, A.K. 1961: 114-149

[41] Pereira, Rui Gomes. 1978: 14

[42] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 176

[43] Xavier, P.D. 1993: 176

[44] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed.). 1993: XVII

[45] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed.). 1993: XXIV

[46] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed). 1993: 167-170

[47] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed.). 1993: XIV

[48] Rodrigues, L.A. 1975: 21-37

[49] His son writes: „ (...) Afonso Daalboquerque told the captains to reconnoitre the whole of the island and to put to the sword all the Moors, men, women and children, that should be found, and to give no quarter to any of them; for his determination was to leave no seed of this race throughout the whole of the island. (…) And for four days continuously they poured out the blood of the Moors who were found therein; and it was ascertained that of men, women, and children, the number exceeded six thousand.” Albuquerque, Braz. 1877. Commentaires of the Great Afonso Daalboquerque, Vol. II (Tr. By W. de G. Birch). London. p. 102. Quoted in: Priolkar, A.K. 1961: 68

[50] Xavier, P.D. 1992 : 30

[51] Menezes Rodrigues de, Pia. 2000. “ Emmergence of a Goan Elite of Intellectuals “, in : Borges, Charles J. 2000: 197

[52] Singh, K.S. / Shirodkar, P.P. (ed.). 1993: XXII

[53] Miranda de, Agapito: 48-56

[54] Gomes, Olivinho. 1999: 15.

[55] Pereira, José. 1992: 8

[56] Built between 1558-1560 for the Patriarch of Ethiopia, it was converted into a novitiate of the Jesuits in 1610 but fell into ruins after the Jesuits were suppressed in Goa in 1759.

[57] Gomes, Olivinho. 1999: 20.

[58] Miranda de, Agapito: 44

[59] Pereira, José/ Martins, Micael. 2000: 76-78

[60] Pereira, José. 1967: 32

[61] Konkani